There were also racial/ethnic variations in rates within this age group (per 100,000), from 1,458.3 among Whites and 7,719.1 among Blacks to 2,013.6 among Hispanics, 548.9 among Asians, 3,219.8 among Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and 4,235.1 among American Indians/Alaska Natives. Recent years have seen a downward trend in rates of teenage pregnancies, births, and abortions.
In 2010, the pregnancy rate among young women 15–19 years of age was 57.4 per 1,000, while the birth rate was 34.4 per 1,000 and the abortion rate was 14.7 per 1,000. These data represent a 51% decline in the teen pregnancy rate since the rate reached its peak in 1990; however, racial and ethnic disparities persist.
Relationship to Existing APHA Policy Statements • APHA Policy Statement 200610: Abstinence and U. Abstinence Only Education Policies: Ethical and Human Rights Concerns • APHA Policy Statement 2005-10: Sexuality Education As Part Of A Comprehensive Health Education Program in K to 12 Schools • APHA Policy Statement 9207: Underscoring the Continued Need for a Sustained National HIV Prevention and Public Education Initiative • APHA Policy Statement 200314: Support for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in the United States and Abroad • APHA Policy Statement 2004-09: Promoting Public Health and Education Goals through Coordinated School Health Programs Problem Statement Scientific issues: Young people in the United States are at persistent risk for HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), unintended pregnancy, and intimate partner violence (IPV). Mullen PD, Ramirez G, Strouse D, Hedges LV, Sogolow E.
Young women and youth from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds are at particular risk, as indicated by the data below. International Sexuality and HIV Curriculum Working Group. Johnson BT, Scott-Sheldon LAJ, Huedo-Medina TB, Carey MP. Meta-analysis of the effects of behavioral HIV prevention interventions on the sexual risk behavior of sexually experienced adolescents in controlled studies in the United States.
A large body of evidence supports the implementation of comprehensive sexuality education as one solution to this problem.
Evidence suggests that abstinence-only approaches do not lead to behavioral changes and result in critical health information being inappropriately withheld.
In 2013, 10.3% of high school students reported experiencing physical violence committed by a romantic partner. Decker MR, Seage GR III, Hemenway D, Gupta J, Raj A, Silverman JG. For example, 13 states require that curricula be medically accurate, and 26 states and the District of Columbia require that information be age appropriate. What girls won’t do for love: human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infections risk among young African-American women driven by a relationship imperative. Twenty-two states and the District of Columbia require that schools notify parents before instruction begins, giving parents the opportunity to opt their children out of such instruction; in contrast, three states require parents to proactively opt their children into sexuality education instruction. Abstract The American Public Health Association has asserted that all young people need the knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary to avoid HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and unintended pregnancy so that they can become sexually healthy adults. Rates of teenage pregnancy and STIs in the United States remain alarmingly high, and disparities persist by gender and race/ethnicity. A decade in review: building on the experiences of past adolescent STI/HIV interventions to optimise future prevention efforts. Others, including class, race, and access to services, are related to social context. Unwanted unprotected sex: condom coercion by male partners and self-silencing of condom negotiation among adolescent girls. For example, in a literature review of research on the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on teen births, the authors concluded that a number of factors associated with low SES, including underemployment, low income, low education levels, neighborhood disadvantage, and neighborhood-level income inequality, were associated with teen births. Numerous individual studies support the observation that contextual factors related to poverty and social class contribute to disparities in STIs and HIV infection as well.[9,10] Many factors intersect with individual, relationship, and social contexts. Dating violence against adolescent girls and associated substance use, unhealthy weight control, sexual risk behavior, pregnancy and suicidality. Black and Hispanic adolescents have been disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In 2010, Blacks accounted for 57.4% of new HIV infections among 13- to 24-year-olds, and Hispanics accounted for 19.6% of such infections. Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States. In addition, federal funding streams have provided vital support for the evaluation of innovative approaches to teen pregnancy prevention as a means of expanding the evidence base for programs that focus on addressing the negative health outcomes described above. However, despite the lack of evidence supporting the effectiveness of abstinence-only-until-marriage programs described below, as well as evidence demonstrating the potential harmful effects of such programs on adolescents’ sexual health, the federal government also continues to fund abstinence-only programs.