It is possible to examine xerographically produced materials and determine the extent to which they have been exposed to environmental conditions. Additional examination methodologies are being evaluated that concern the other referenced materials. Physical and chemical examinations can indicate the use of multiple typewriters, printers, papers or writing instruments in the preparation of a document.
When additions are prepared using the same materials that were used in the initial preparation of the document then the question actually becomes, "When were the additions made?
The hole punch is approximately the size of a typewriter period and a full range of tests requires about 30.For example, a forensic document examiner can determine whether the stray toner particles (they are present on any laser-printed and photocopied documents but invisible to the naked eye) are below or above ballpoint pen ink writing (see Aginsky, V. N., “Determining the Sequence of Non-Intersecting Media on Documents: Ballpoint Pen Ink and Laser Toner Entries,” , Vol. The answer to that question may determine whether the document has been altered (by adding certain information).It should be noted that sequence of execution may be determined even when lines of the text and signature (handwritten notation) do not intersect. * At present, the ink aging methods that analyze ink dye components are considered unreliable by the overwhelming majority of ink dating specialists and forensic document examiners.If the initial date of commercial availability is more recent than the supposed date of the examined writing, then the document is not what it purports.We cannot, however, through this technique, determine the specific or even approximate date of preparation.An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability. He trained with and served as the Chief Research Forensic Chemist with the United States Secret Service and was responsible for maintaining the largest known forensic collection of writing inks in the world. If an entry is dated in 1995, but the ink was not available until 2005 then the document could not have been created in 1995. When the writing on the reverse side of a sheet of paper in a bound ledger intersects with the writing on the front side of the sheet of paper, ink may be transferred from the front page onto an underlying page.Such transfers will occur only when inks are freshly applied.